About Met.3D

Met.3D is being developed as a research effort to improve the visual analysis of 3-D meteorological data in research and forecasting.

Met.3D is developed at the Regional Computing Center of Universität Hamburg (UHH) and at the Computer Graphics & Visualization Group of the Technical University of Munich (TUM), Germany. Since 2015, we receive ongoing funding from the German Research Foundation (DFG) within the Collaborative Research Centre SFB/TRR 165 Waves to Weather and the UHH Cluster of Excellence CLICCS. Previously, the development was partly funded by the European Union under the ERC Advanced Grant 291372 SaferVis and the ERC Proof-of-Concept Grant "Vis4Weather".

Met.3D research and development is led by Marc Rautenhaus, UHH (previously TUM).

The entry point to information about Met.3D is the reference publication. Also, Marc's PhD thesis contains additional details.

  • Rautenhaus, M., Kern, M., Schäfler, A., and Westermann, R.: Three-dimensional visualization of ensemble weather forecasts – Part 1: The visualization tool Met.3D (version 1.0), Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 2329-2353, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-2329-2015, 2015.
  • Rautenhaus, M.: Interactive 3D visualization of ensemble weather forecasts, Ph.D. thesis,  Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany, 195pp., 2015.


The following (likely incomplete) list contains scientific publications that are using Met.3D for development, evaluation, or use of new visualization techniques in meteorology.

If you have used Met.3D for a publication please let us know so we can add your paper to the list!

  • 2023
    • Schäfler, A. and Rautenhaus, M.: Interactive 3D Visual Analysis of Weather Prediction Data Reveals Midlatitude Overshooting Convection during the CIRRUS-HL Field Experiment, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 104, E1426–E1434, URL http://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-22-0103.1, 2023
    • Neuhauser, C., Hieronymus, M., Kern, M., Rautenhaus, M., Oertel, A., and Westermann, R.: Visual Analysis of Model Parameter Sensitivities along Warm Conveyor Belt Trajectories Using Met.3D (1.6.0-Multivar1), Geoscientific Model Development, 16, 4617–4638, URL http://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-16-4617-2023, 2023
    • Beckert, A. A., Eisenstein, L., Oertel, A., Hewson, T., Craig, G. C., and Rautenhaus, M.: The Three-Dimensional Structure of Fronts in Mid-Latitude Weather Systems in Numerical Weather Prediction Models, Geoscientific Model Development, 16, 4427–4450, URL http://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-16-4427-2023, 2023
  • 2022
    • Fischer, C., Fink, A. H., Schömer, E., van der Linden, R., Maier-Gerber, M., Rautenhaus, M., and Riemer, M.: A Novel Method for Objective Identification of 3-D Potential Vorticity Anomalies, Geoscientific Model Development, 15, 4447–4468, URL http://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-15-4447-2022, 2022
  • 2021
    • Meyer, M., Polkova, I., Modali, K. R., Schaffer, L., Baehr, J., Olbrich, S., and Rautenhaus, M.: Interactive 3-D Visual Analysis of ERA5 Data: Improving Diagnostic Indices for Marine Cold Air Outbreaks and Polar Lows, Weather and Climate Dynamics, 2, 867–891, URL http://doi.org/10.5194/wcd-2-867-2021, 2021
  • 2020
  • 2019
    • Kern, M., Hewson, T., Schäfler, A., Westermann, R., and Rautenhaus, M.: Interactive 3D Visual Analysis of Atmospheric Fronts, IEEE Trans. Visual. Comput. Graphics, 25, 1080–1090, URL http://doi.org/10.1109/TVCG.2018.2864806, 2019
    • Kumpf, A., Rautenhaus, M., Riemer, M., and Westermann, R.: Visual Analysis of the Temporal Evolution of Ensemble Forecast Sensitivities, IEEE Trans. Visual. Comput. Graphics, 25, 98–108, URL http://doi.org/10.1109/TVCG.2018.2864901, 2019
  • 2018
    • Rautenhaus, M., Böttinger, M., Siemen, S., Hoffman, R., Kirby, R. M., Mirzargar, M., Röber, N., and Westermann, R.: Visualization in Meteorology — A Survey of Techniques and Tools for Data Analysis Tasks, IEEE Trans. Visual. Comput. Graphics, 24, 3268–3296, URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/tvcg.2017.2779501, 2018
    • Schäfler, A., Craig, G., Wernli, H., Arbogast, P., Doyle, J. D., McTaggart-Cowan, R., Methven, J., Rivière, G., Ament, F., Boettcher, M., Bramberger, M., Cazenave, Q., Cotton, R., Crewell, S., Delanoë, J., Dörnbrack, A., Ehrlich, A., Ewald, F., Fix, A., Grams, C. M., Gray, S. L., Grob, H., Groß, S., Hagen, M., Harvey, B., Hirsch, L., Jacob, M., Kölling, T., Konow, H., Lemmerz, C., Lux, O., Magnusson, L., Mayer, B., Mech, M., Moore, R., Pelon, J., Quinting, J., Rahm, S., Rapp, M., Rautenhaus, M., Reitebuch, O., Reynolds, C. A., Sodemann, H., Spengler,  T., Vaughan, G., Wendisch, M., Wirth, M., Witschas, B., Wolf, K., and Zinner, T.: The North Atlantic Waveguide and Downstream Impact Experiment, Bull. American Meteor. Soc., 99, 1607–1637, URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-17-0003.1, 2018
    • Kern, M., Hewson, T., Sadlo, F., Westermann, R., and Rautenhaus, M.: Robust Detection and Visualization of Jet-stream Core Lines in Atmospheric Flow, IEEE Trans. Visual. Comput. Graphics, 24, 893–902, URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/tvcg.2017.2743989, 2018
    • Kumpf, A., Tost, B., Baumgart, M., Riemer, M., Westermann, R., and Rautenhaus, M.: Visualizing Confidence in Cluster-based Ensemble Weather Forecast Analyses, IEEE Trans. Visual. Comput. Graphics, 24, 109–119, URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/tvcg.2017.2745178, 2018
  • 2017
    • Ferstl, F., Kanzler, M., Rautenhaus, M., and Westermann, R.: Time-hierarchical Clustering and Visualization of Weather Forecast Ensembles, IEEE Trans. Visual. Comput. Graphics, 23, 831–840, URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/tvcg.2016.2598868, 2017
  • 2015
    • Rautenhaus, M., Kern, M., Schäfler, A., and Westermann, R.: Three-dimensional visualization of ensemble weather forecasts – Part 1: The visualization tool Met.3D (version 1.0), Geoscientific Model Development, 8, 2329–2353, URL http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/gmd-8-2329-2015, 2015
    • Rautenhaus, M., Grams, C. M., Schäfler, A., and Westermann, R.: Three-dimensional visualization of ensemble weather forecasts – Part 2: Forecasting warm conveyor belt situations for aircraft-based field campaigns, Geoscientific Model Development, 8, 2355–2377, URL http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/gmd-8-2355-2015, 2015
  • 2014
    • Rautenhaus, M., Grams, G., Schäfler, A., and Westermann, R.: GPU based interactive 3D visualization of ECMWF ensemble forecasts, ECMWF Newsletter, 138, 34–38, URL http://dx.doi.org/10.21957/ouo7uwp2, 2014


A very incomplete list of publicly available presentations on Met.3D:


The Met.3D core development team currently consists of:

We acknowledge the following individuals for their contribution:

  • Susanne Fuchs, UHH
  • Kamesh Modali, UHH (former core member - many thanks!)
  • Justus Jakobi, UHH student
  • Alexander Klassen, UHH student
  • Jonas Lefert, UHH student
  • Marcel Meyer, UHH
  • Michael Kern, TUM (former core member - many thanks!)
  • Alexander Kumpf, TUM (former core member - many thanks!)
  • Bianca Tost, TUM (former core member - many thanks!)
  • Mathias Kanzler, TUM
  • Florian Ferstl, TUM
  • Fabian Schöttl, TUM student
  • Christoph Heidelmann, TUM student
  • Florian Hauer, TUM student
  • Max Bandle, TUM student
  • Jessica Blankenburg, TUM student
  • Raphael Kriegmair, LMU student
  • Philipp Kaiser, TUM student
  • Theresa Diefenbach, LMU student
  • Robert Redl, LMU
  • Alexander Thole, TUM student

We acknowledge support from ECMWF, in particular by Tim Hewson and Stephan Siemen and his group. Access to ECMWF data for our work has been kindly provided in the context of the ECMWF special project "Support Tool for HALO Missions".

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